Saturday, 11 August 2012

Quality Tool: Relationship Diagram

Assalamualaikum and a very good day I wish to all readers.

First of all, damn~~ its been so long since I post my blog entry huh? what do you know, its been exactly 6 months ago as my last post was actually on 11/2/12. =D So, without further ado, here's the continuation.

Before I proceed, I would like to remind new readers and new followers that this is academic blog style that I (so called invented?) and you can't find its type in the option. Therefore, read up from the start as the posts are like the trains stops; You need to stop at each place even though its not your destination.

So, enough with my random babbling, here goes nothing~~!

Previously, I have used my experience and knowledge in my ICC group project that was conducted in PSB DECO and like wise, so does its continuation. Where were we before? oh yes, the affinity diagram for brainstorming.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Brainstorming tools such as affinity diagram is good for getting new and unrestricted ideas but some of them might be repeated and related. Hence, in order to narrow it down and get a concrete, solid ideas...... we need to identify which one of all those points are the ROOTS. Why? SIMPLE! Once we solve the root, we can get the above the ground things too! If its problem that we analyzed (to improve, there must be a problem first no?). the ROOTS that we found would be root cause! And, by solving this one root cause, we could prevent a lot more problems.

So, here's the steps to perform Relationship Diagram:

Example: How to show the relationship between each cards

  1. Put / Spread out the cards used in Affinity Diagram (or you may copied it onto a large paper).
  2. Through consensus of your team mate, link those cards. For example, A would definitely give rise to B or Y would occur from the combination of both W & Z. The A, B, Y, W and Z in this example are all the cards.
  3. Do the linkage with an arrow where it will point from "this causes this". As per previous example, it will be like above there.
  4. Once ALL of the cards have been like that, double check with team members for any left out relationship. Don't be afraid to have a messy, intersecting lines of arrows as the more of it, the better.
  5. Next, numbered down each and every element of the cards. For example, you have 10 cards from affinity diagram, so you would definitely have 10 cards to be number from 1 - 10.
  6. Write down a table with 3 columns. First one would be for the cards number, followed by arrows in and arrows out.
  7. Fill up the arrows in and out. E.g: At card no 5, there are 8 other cards that will causes it so the arrows in would be 8. While on the other hand, the same no 5 card actually causes another (one only) card and thus, the arrows out would 1. Repeat it till the table is completed.
  8. The last and final step, identify the highest no. for both arrows in and out. Before we finish, remember again what is the purpose of the relationship diagram, to find the ROOTS. So, ask yourself do u need cause or effect? Highest no of arrows out would be the ROOT CAUSE while the highest no of arrows in would be the ROOT EFFECT.
  9. A picture of completed relationship diagram and its table would as follows:

Example: Completed Relationship Diagram

Example: Completed arrows IN and OUT to find ROOT EFFECT


This is the tools used after AFFINITY DIAGRAM to find either root cause or root effect. Root cause to solve problem and root effect to see most benefit (positive) and most wicked problem (negative). Circle, highlight or change colour for ease of presentation.

HINT: Next entry would be the continuation of this and we will then starts to solve the problem in ICC! =D

Saturday, 11 February 2012

7 New Quality Tool: Affinity Diagram

Assalamualaikum and a very good day I wish to you all readers,

As I have promised before, I'm gonna explain the quality tools in a more in-depth and efficient method, via application! So, in my 4th semester in UNIKL MITEC, I'm taking the Innovation and Creativity Circle (ICC) competition subject. It's basically a mini convention of quality improvements among students taking the subject.

Luckily for my friends and I, we have given the opportunity to apply ICC into a real life industry in a certain company. That company is~~~~~ PSB Decorations Sdn Bhd. For more information about this company, you may refer PSB facebook and PSB blog @ website. HOWEVER, due to P&C and copyright possibilities, I won't give out the examples below from the real data. Instead I would simulate the application in another industry.


As I mentioned in my previous post, there are 7 new quality tools and the first one is affinity diagram. Hurm, I'm sure new readers would not be clear on its usage so I'll summed it up as a tool for BRAINSTORMING.

How to use it? I'll give example base on a restaurant establishment (product + service sector)

  1. Select the circle members. The best would be several member from a different department. For example: one manager, one supervisor, one waiter/waitress, one bartender, one cook, one cleaner/dishwasher guy , one accountant and one boss/board member.
  2. Select the idea/ issue/ problem/ complaint/ improvement to be made. For example: cleanliness issue; ministry of health coming for a check up.
  3. Give everyone a few set of small paper to write down. You may set the limit to be 10, 30, 100, 200 or what ever number u desire. The higher the number, the better. I would suggest to try 5 paper for each persons for starters.
  4. Ask everyone to write down ONE idea on EACH paper. The idea would depends on the issue and purpose. It may be an improvement or causes or advantages or disadvantages or anything you desire or expected. For example: improvement or ways to improve the cleanliness level in the restaurant.
  5. After some consideration and everyone finished writing, collect the paper @ cards and shuffle them. Then, lay out all of them one by one on a table or a piece of board so that everyone can see it.
  6. With everyone consensus, discussion and agreement, lump together ideas that are similar to each other. In addition, write down a heading for them. For example: Ideas are schedule sweeping time, allocate 15 min everyday before opening for everyone to help clean, supervisor regularly check the cleanliness level, randomly asking for feedback from customer. The heading would be schedule for the first two and quality check for the latter two.
  7. Arrange the lumps or groups together systematically with their heading written on top of each groups.
  8. There you go! You have just finished the BRAINSTORMING session and gain a considerable amounts of new and possible ideas!
Nevertheless, I'll give you guys some extra here for another example with picture to show how the Affinity Diagram would look like as below:

So, there you. I hope this post is beneficial on your quest of applying quality in your life. =D Spread the word, share this post if you wanted too. Knowledge is meant to be shared. That's all for this time. Thank You for reading!


Friday, 3 February 2012

Quality Tools: How to use it?

Assalamualaikum and a very good day I wish to you readers.

First of all, I'm sorry for the absence of new entry for so long. The thing is, I was waiting for my Innovation and Creativity Circle (ICC) Competition subject for this semester to further elaborate on the next topic; Quality tools.

So, for those who are new to my academic blog and quality engineering, I'm sure your not familiar yet with the quality tools. Therefore, for this entry, I'll list out the quality tools available first and will further explain them later on. So, let's the class begin! =D

Before we proceed, I would like you all to understand there are actually 14 Quality Tools that are divided into two, basic / 7 quality tools mainly for numerical data and 7 new quality tools mainly for verbal data.

7 Quality Tools:

  1. Flowchart: A diagram of the steps in a process.
  2. Check Sheet: A tool for organizing and collecting data, a tally of problems or other events by category.
  3. Histogram: A chart that shows an empirical frequency distribution.
  4. Pareto Chart: A diagram that arranges categories from highest to lowest frequency of occurrence.
  5. Scatter Diagram: A graph that shows the degree and direction of relationship between two variables.
  6. Control Chart: A statistical chart of time-ordered values of a sample statistic.
  7. Cause and Effect Diagram @ Ishikawa Diagram @ Fish Bone Diagram: A diagram used to organize a search for the cause(s) of a problem.
So, for ease of understanding, I have included how generally each of them look like as below:

So, I'm pretty sure most readers would be familiar with flowchart, histogram, scatter diagram and some, check sheet as we use them in our daily lives and in office. Without further ado, lets move on to the next one.

7 New Quality Tools:

  1. Affinity Diagram.
  2. Relationship Diagram.
  3. Tree Diagram.
  4. Matrix Diagram.
  5. Arrow Diagram.
  6. Process Decision Program  Chart.
  7. Matrix Data Analysis.

However, I would not explain for the new quality tools now since it requires a lengthy explanation. Nevertheless, I will explain them properly in later entry with examples Insya Allah. Thus, stay tune for next entry!

Spoiler Alert!: I will explain these quality tools using my ICC project as example so you guys could learn about ICC and quality tools at the same time! Effective and Efficient eh? =D

Thank You for reading. Prepare yourself for a mind-blowing experience of quality engineering application in my next entry!